The foundation of my work employs audio (and especially music) to carry brainwave frequencies directly into the consciousness of the listener.

The neurotypical brain experiences several brainwave frequencies at any given moment, yet there is a dominant pattern ruling the overall state of mind. If you are awake and relaxed, your dominant brainwave is Alpha. If you begin reading, your dominant brainwave pattern shifts to a Beta frequency. But you’re still experiencing Alpha brainwaves in the background, even as the Beta frequencies become the strongest brainwave pattern with the highest amplitude. In other words, the Alpha brainwaves may diminish as the Beta pattern emerges, but they don’t disappear.

36-80GammaRevelation; inspiration; perception and consciousness.
24–36High BetaTension; Adrenaline; fight-or-flight response
13–24Low BetaConcentration; high focus
7–13AlphaRelaxed focus; “in the zone”; drowsiness
4-7ThetaDreaming; deep meditation; REM state
0.5 – 4DeltaDeep sleep; loss of body awareness
0 – 0.5Epsilon*Shamanic trance


The Delta frequency range is the slowest and strongest of the brainwave frequencies. You experience Delta during deep, dreamless sleep. Delta is when your conscious mind is completely detached. It is the home of your unconscious mind, and the gateway to the universal mind as well as the so called collective unconscious.. 

I created Deltadream and Hibernation specifically to help people achieve deep, restorative sleep. Even though the dreamlike music of these two recordings is drifts without resolution, some listeners find that the music is nevertheless too engaging, so I created a trio of binaural beats called Surf Series, with the one-hour track “Delta Surf (Sleep)” designed for looping during a typical night of sleep.


Theta brainwaves drive the subconsciousness mind and abstract relational thought. Theta is associated with deep meditation as well as the REM phase of the sleep cycle. It is in Theta where you experience vivid visualizations, great inspiration, uninhibited creativity and exceptional insight.

Theta projects I’ve worked on include Ascension, Higher, and Namaste, which are Notable as they also happen to have been released with Hemi-Sync® meditation frequencies, and are beloved by those involved in the Monroe Institute. More information can be found at

Notable Theta projects include Aurora, Liminal, Regenerate, Solfeggio Suite, and Splendor. The thirty-minute track “Theta Surf (Meditate)” is from Surf Series, a binaural beat set that fosters a distraction free meditation experience solely in the Theta range.


The easiest way to experience an Alpha brainwave pattern is to sit down, close your eyes, relax your jaw, and begin taking deep breathes through your nose. Let your shoulders go and within a few seconds, you are shifting into Alpha.

I refer to Alpha as relaxed focus, it is when you are in the zone. Alpha when you’re slipping into a daydream or during light meditation. It is an optimal time to program the mind for success and it also heightens your imagination, visualization, memory, learning and concentration. 

It is the gateway to your subconscious mind and lies at the base of your conscious awareness. The voice of Alpha is your intuition, which becomes clearer and more profound the deeper you go into Alpha.


Beta brainwave frequencies are associated with waking consciousness and a heightened state of alertness, logic, and critical reasoning. Beta brainwaves are dominant when mentally active, such as reading or writing. At the higher end of the Beta frequency spectrum, Beta frequencies are associated with adrenaline and the flight-or-flight response.

Most of the music I created for the Monroe Institute is associated with the development of Beta Hemi-Sync® frequencies for focus and concentration. Indigo and Illumination were later re-issued with my own blend of Beta binaural beats for easy access in the most commonly talked about music apps, but I prefer and recommend the Hemi-Sync® versions, information about which can be found at

Contemplation and


I consider the bottom of the gamma range to start somewhere in the high thirties, usually at about 36Hz. Gamma frequencies are the fastest of the known brainwaves. Thanks to increasingly sensitive EEG readers, Gamma brainwaves are a more “recent” discovery relative to the other, better understood brainwave states. While we continue to refine our understanding of this state of mind, Gamma waves are currently associated with bursts of insight and high-level information processing.

On recordings like Aurora and Insight, I use Gamma in short bursts to reflect the experience of a flash of insight and understanding. Gammadrone features a sustained Gamma pattern modulating around a 40Hz frequency with occasional 80Hz harmonic spikes to stimulate inspiration. Writers particularly praise Gammadrone for keeping the ideas flowing, but maybe writers just love writing detailed emails.


Infra-Low brainwaves (also known as Slow Cortical Potentials) appear to take a major role in brain timing and network function.